parkinson

  • CBD - Cannabidiol

    CBD - Cannabidiol

    Dr. med. Heinz Lüscher

     

    CBD is a constituent of cannabis plant which has promising medical properties. This substance appears to be pain-relieving, and it has anti-epileptic as well as anti-psychotic effects. CBD is also a strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. Of particular interest is the fact that CBD has nerve-protecting effects.

     

    Cannabidiol or shortly CBD is one of the major cannabinoids identified in the cannabis plant. The cannabis shrub (up to 4 Meters high) produces over 60 various chemical compounds of such cannabinoids. One of the cannabis strains called hemp, has been selectively bred to produce a maximum of CBD. Hemp, which is legally cultivatable, contains hardly any content of the primary psychoactive compound of cannabinoids—THC.

    CBD is, in contrast, not psychoactive, i.e. it doesn’t have any psychological effects on the brain. Instead, CBD has a variety of medicinally desired properties and won’t lead to any relevant side effects even given in high doses. Taking CBD is therefore considered explicitly secure.

     

    The Endocannabinoid System

    While researching plant-based cannabinoids, scientists discovered the endocannabinoid system in the human body. Known as “the body’s own cannabinoid system”, the endocannabinoid system is a subsystem of mammalian nervous systems, that is involved in a variety of physiological processes such as pain sensation, memory management and regulation of the immune system. The neuro- modulatory lipids, or so called endocannabinoids, are substances produced from within the body that activate the relevant Receptors CB1 and CB2, thereby deploying various processes of sending signals throughout neural pathways within any given organic system.

    Properties of CBD

    CBD has the property of pain-relieving. It is often used for its anticonvulsant, anti-epileptic, anti- psychotic and anxiolytic effects. CBD is also considered to be an anti-inflammatory and anti- oxidant. It is neuroprotective and has an antibacterial effect against certain germs (MRSA) with high antibiotic resistance. CBD inhibits nausea, helps with muscle spasms and reduces the risks of the development of diabetes. All these health effects of CBD make it a superior candidate for treating chronic pain, inflammatory diseases of the nervous system, epilepsy, anxiety disorder, psychosis and schizophrenia.

    Probably the most interesting feature of CBD is its neuroprotective potential, which is increasingly and intensively being put under scrutiny due to its associative nature with many neurodegenerative diseases such as Altzheimers, Parkinsons, Huntington’s disease, and ALS, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. CBD seems to have the capability to reduce various harmful phenomena such as neuro inflammation, excitotoxicity (by which nerve cells are damaged and killed due to the excess of neurotransmitters such as glutamate), and oxidative stress and nervous degeneration in the brain. CBD can be further approached as a candidate for treating chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like colitis ulcerosa or Crohn’s Disease.

     

     

    Effects of CBD

    CBD effects the body in many different ways. According to CBD expert, Dr. med. Franjo Grotenhermen, the following mechanisms are among the most important:

    • Similar to capsaicin*, CBD stimulates the vaniloid receptor type 1 with maximum effect. This explains partially the anti-inflammatory effect of CBD.

    • CBD alleviates inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Such pain-relieving sensation is presumably mediated by glycine receptors while CBD suppresses those chronic pain stimuli.

    • CBD inhibits the body’s own degradation of its neurotransmitter—anandamide, thereby enhancing the cannabinoids concentration in the body. The observed anti-psychotic effects of CBD are co-related to this high-level of anandamide as just mentioned.

    • CBD strengthens the adenosine’s effect in signal transduction. Adenosine is the body’s own substance which blocks the distribution of activated and animated neurotransmitters or messengers in the nervous system. Some of the CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects are based on this mechanism mentioned above. A further reason for its anti-inflammatory effects relates to CBD’s bindings to the GPR55-Receptor—one of the cannabinoid receptors which is likely targeted for treatment of inflammation and pain.

    • CBD is an effective anti-oxidant or a free- radical catcher. It shows that CBD can prevent oxidative damage as effectively as, if not better than, vitamin C or vitamin E.

    • CBD inhibits the replication of certain brain tumor cells (glioma), by evoking their autophagy—a natural mechanism of cell self-destruction.

    • Researchers have examined CBD’s preventative effects on cancer for many years. There is some evidence to suggest that CBD may inhibit the growth of new blood vessels in the cancerous tissues.

    • CBD acts indirectly as an antagonist against the agonists (such as THC) of CB1 and CB2 receptors. Therefore, CBD reduces many negative effects and symptoms induced by THC.

      *A naturel component in cayenne (chilli)

     
    The remarkable fact is that CBD has a very low affinity to the receptors in the endocannabinoid systems. Its effect comes, more than likely, from its capacity to inhibit the clearance of the body’s own endocannabinoids. Thus, by the intake of CBD, you may prolong and strengthen the effects of these endocannabinoids.

    Dosage Recommendations of CBD

    CBD is already effective in doses of between 10 and 40mg. Depending on the requirements, it can be prescribed in higher doses of up to 800mg for adults. For children, the dosage is between 2 and 10mg per kg of body weight.

    The effects on children with epilepsy show that each person reacts differently to CBD. Some children reacted well to low doses, whereas others required higher doses and others again did not respond to treatment with CBD.

     

     

    Medical Applications of CBD

    CBD and pain

    CBD is a promising pain reliever. This mostly applies to nerve pain and pain caused due to inflammation. In these cases, CBD can simultaneously reduce inflammation and lessen the sensation of pain. Thus, CBD has proven to be effective against pain in multiple sclerosis. However, CBD is also effective against other types of pain.

    CBD and migraines

    Although the cause of migraines is still shrouded in mystery, the severe headaches appear to be associated with nerve inflammation. Genetic studies have shown a link between existing migraine tendencies and a lack of CB1 receptors in the brain. CBD could help by inhibiting the breakdown of anandamide and thereby maintain a higher concentration of these messengers for the interaction with the remaining CB1 receptors.

    CBD and epilepsy

    In some forms of epilepsy, CBD can effectively suppress seizures without neurotoxic or habit- forming side-effects, which would require a regular increase in dosage. This especially applies to certain genetic forms of epilepsy in children. In studies, half the patients taking CBD suffered no more attacks, whereas 38% experienced at least a partial improvement. There is a well-known case of a 5year old girl in the USA who suffered from a rare form of epilepsy which resulted in up to 300 attacks per day. When drugs no longer helped, her parents eventually discovered an extract from a CBD-rich variety of hemp. This helped, and the attacks were reduced from hundreds per day to one a week! The little girl could eat, talk and even ride her bike once again.

    CBD and Alzheimer's

    With Alzheimer’s disease, the brain gradually increasingly atrophies. Possible reasons are an inflammatory response to the nervous tissue deposits in the brain, the destruction of nerve cells and oxidative stress. Various studies show that CBD treatment can inhibit the inflammatory response in the brain effectively. In addition, CBD reduces oxidative stress and protects the nerve cells from damage or degeneration.

    CBD and Parkinson's

    Parkinson’s is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder, with symptoms varying from tremors, to restricted mobility, to muscular rigidity. One of the reasons is the demise of dopamine producing neurons in the brain. According to studies, CBD can reduce this loss in dopamine. In addition, the psychotic symptoms of Parkinson’s patients can be reduced.

    CBD and ALS

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease of the motor nervous system, leading to paralysis and muscle
    weakness. Studies consistently show that CBD can halt, or at least delay, the degeneration of nerve cells affected by ALS. This reduced degeneration is done by bringing the neurotransmitter glutamate into equilibrium, reducing the oxidative stresses and reducing local inflammatory reactions.

    CBD and Schizophrenia

    While THC may favour the onset of psychosis, CBD does the exact opposite. In a double blind study in 2012, CBD preparations were given to patients with acute schizophrenia which proved to be as effective as drugs, but with far fewer side effects. Experts believe unanimously that this is related to the described increase of anandamide levels attributed to CBD.

    CBD and cancer

    Several studies have revealed the cancer fighting properties of CBD. In one study of breast cancer, CBD triggered the programmed cell death of the cancer cells. A reduction in the viability of cells and the induction of cell death by CBD was also observed in leukemia cells. The same applies to prostate cancer cells. In cell experiments, CBD inhibited the formation of metastases in lung cancer. Another anti-cancer effect is that CBD inhibits the formation of new blood vessels in tumours. Although treatment with CBD may not be an alternative to normal cancer treatment, it may be a useful and effective complementary treatment.

    CBD and addictions

    There is evidence of the therapeutic potential of CBD with regards to the addiction of THC, nicotine and opiates. CBD appears to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. In one study* smokers who wanted to quit, found it easier to quit smoking with the use of CBD than a comparison group which was given a placebo. The number of cigarettes smoked in the CBD group fell by 40% whereas there was no decline in tobacco use by the control group.

    * Morgan et al. (2013): Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings. Addictive Behaviors 38(9): S. 2433-2436.

    CBD has a preventative or curative effect on the following medical conditions:

    Neurological disorders

    • Alzheimer’s
    • Parkinson’s
    • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
    • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
    • Huntington’s Disease (HD)
    • brain tumours
    • Epilepsy
    • peripheral neuropathies

    Psychiatric disorders

    • addiction to smoking and cannabis
    • anxiety (phobias)
    • mild schizophrenia

    Pain

    • Nervenschmerzen
    • Migräne
    • Muskelspasmen
    • Arthrosen

    Interaction with other drugs

    CBD is metabolized in the liver, where it inhibits the activity of two enzymes which are responsible for the degradation of various drugs. These drugs can be degraded slower and are therefore more effective when taken together with CBD. Affected are the acid inhibitors, Pantoprazol, and Ondansetron, as well as the anti-epileptics Clobazam. (Frisium) and Risperidon (Risperdal). Therefore, one must exercise caution when using one of the above drugs in addition to high doses of CBD.

    Side effects

    CBD is generally pronounced safe. CBD should only not be taken during pregnancy since a study showed that CBD can reduce the protective function and change the properties of the placenta.


    Download CBD-Article as PDF

  • Coenzym Q10

    Coenzym Q10

    Dr. med. Heinz Lüscher

     

    Q10 kennen viele aus der Werbung für Anti-Aging Pflegeprodukte. Doch es wäre schade, Q10 auf seine Wirkung auf die Haut zu beschränken. Q10 wird grundsätzlich von jeder Zelle unseres Körpers benötigt, um die Energieversorgung sicherzustellen. Und es kann noch mehr!

    Was ist Coenzym Q10?

    Das Coenzym Q10, auch Q10, Ubichinon-10 oder UQ genannt, ist ein fettlösliches Molekül, das in seiner Struktur dem Vitamin K und dem Vitamin E ähnelt. Den meisten ist Q10 aus der Werbung für Anti-Aging Produkte bekannt, darum denken viele, es handle sich nur um ein Schönheitsprodukt. Doch es kann bedeutend mehr, als für eine straffe Haut zu sorgen, was ja auch schon einmal nicht schlecht ist.


    Zell-Energie

    Ubichinon ist ein sehr wichtiges körpereigenes Coenzym, das in jeder Körperzelle vorkommt (ubiquitär = überall) und einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Bildung der universellen Körperenergie ATP (Adenosin-Tri-Phosphat) hat. Q10 ist einer der entscheidenden Nährstoffe für die Energiegewinnung in den winzigen, aber kraftvollen Mitochondrien. Das sind die Kraftwerke, die in jeder einzelnen all unserer Körperzellen für uns arbeiten. In den Mitochondrien wird die Energie, die wir über Kohlenhydrate, Fette oder Proteine zu uns nehmen, zusammen mit Sauerstoff und der Kraft des Wassers in ATP umgewandelt. Dieser Prozess, an dem noch viele andere Enzyme und Vitalstoffe beteiligt sind, wird auch Atmungskette genannt. Das Coenzym Q10 stellt eine wichtige Rolle im letzten Schritt der Atmungskette dar. Am meisten Q10 benötigen Organe mit hohem Energieverbrauch wie Hirn, Herz, Leber, Nieren, Bauchspeicheldrüse und beim Sport die Muskulatur. Q10 wird aber grundsätzlich von jeder Zelle unseres Körpers dringend benötigt, um die Energieversorgung sicherzustellen.
    Doch es kann noch mehr!

    Hauptwirkungen von Q10

    • Fördert die Bildung der Zell-Energie ATP
    • Wirkt antioxidativ
    • Stabilisiert die Zellwände
    • Stabilisiert die Wände der Mitochondrien
    • Stärkt das Immunsystem
    • Schützt die Nervenzellen (neuroprotektiv)
    • Schützt die Herzmuskelzellen (kardioprotektiv)

    Q10-Mangel

    Schon bei einem Q10 Mangel von 25% entstehen Schäden an den Mitochondrien, den winzigen Zellorganellen, welche ATP bilden, was zu einem spürbaren Energieverlust führen kann. Im Laufe des Lebens nimmt die körpereigene Produktion laufend ab. Mit einem zunehmenden Mangel an Q10 steigt auch das Risiko von Erkrankungen. Ein Beispiel ist Demenz: Jede Hirnzelle hat hunderte bis tausende Mitochondrien, die auf Q10 angewiesen sind! Je tiefer der Q10-Spiegel, desto grösser das Risiko für eine Demenz. Q10 hemmt zudem auch Entzündungen und fängt freie Radikale ab (antioxidativ), was zusätzlich wichtig ist in der Vorbeugung von Demenz.

    Quellen von Coenzym Q10

    Q10 ist das einzige fettlösliche Antioxidans, das von unserem Körper selbst hergestellt werden kann. Diese Menge ist jedoch zu gering, darum müssen wir Q10 durch unsere Nahrung ergänzen. Es gibt jedoch kein Nahrungsmittel, das besonders viel Q10 enthalten würde, eine ausgewogene Ernährung ist folglich entscheidend. Am meisten Q10 findet sich im Fleisch von Organen (z.B. Leber), in öligem Fisch (z. B. Sardinen), Nüssen (z. B. Pistazien), Hülsenfrüchten, Sesamsamen, Sonnenblumenkernen, Pflanzenölen, Kohl, Zwiebeln, Kartoffeln, Jungspinat, Rosenkohl und Brokkoli. Durch Kochen kann das Coenzym jedoch zerstört werden. Eine schonende Zubereitung ist deshalb wichtig.

    Wann ist eine Supplementation mit Q10 angezeigt?

    Eine Ergänzung kann vorbeugend ab dem 50. Lebensjahr durchaus empfohlen werden, speziell wenn bereits Probleme mit verminderter Energie spürbar sind oder Medikamente eingenommen werden, welche als Nebenwirkung den Q10-Spiegel senken. Niemand macht übrigens einen Fehler, gut mit Q10 versorgt zu sein. Die positiven Effekte z.B. auf Hirn- und Herzfunktion und Lebenserwartung sind zweifelsfrei belegt. Wenn man Q10 als Nahrungsergänzung einnimmt, ist die Bioverfügbarkeit am höchsten, wenn man gleichzeitig Fette konsumiert.

    Q10 Räuber - Medikamente

    Die cholesterinsenkenden Statine (CSE-Hemmer) und Betablocker senken als Nebenwirkung den Q10-Spiegel beträchtlich, bei Statinen kann es über 50% betragen. Auch trizyklische Antidepressiva senken den Q10-Spiegel. Wer Statine einnehmen muss wegen zu hohem Cholesterin (Achtung: ein Wert unter 7,0 mmol/l ist normal und muss nicht behandelt werden, ein Cholesterinspiegel unter 5,0 mmol/l ist sogar gefährlicher als ein zu hoher!), sollte unbedingt Q10 supplementieren.

    Gibt es Nebenwirkungen von Coenzym Q10?

    Q10 hat in therapeutischen Dosen bis 2400 mg/Tag keine Nebenwirkungen! Bei noch höheren Dosen, was aber therapeutisch keinen Sinn macht, kann Durchfall und Übelkeit vorkommen.

    Was ist der Unterschied zwischen Ubichinon und Ubichinol?

    Ubichinol ist die reduzierte Form von Ubichinon (eine Reduktion ist eine chemische Reaktion, bei der Elektronen von einem Molekül auf ein anderes übergehen). Es handelt sich bei Ubichonol und Ubichinon um 2 Zustände einer identischen Substanz.

    Dosierung

    Die Dosierung hängt natürlich von der Krankheit und dem jeweiligen Schweregrad ab, sie beträgt zwischen 100 und 500 mg täglich. Die Kapseln werden über den Tag verteilt jeweils vor dem Essen eingenommen. Zum prophylaktischen Auffüllen des Q10-Spiegels reicht eine niedrigere Dosis und empfiehlt sich für 3-6 Monate.

    Empfehlungen

    Flüssiges Q10 in Weichgelkapseln wird im Darm am besten resorbiert. Bevorzugt werden sollten unbedingt natürliche Produkte und nicht synthetisch hergestellte. Das mit einem patentierten Verfahren auf Lipidbasis hergestellte Q10 Vida, wird im Darm sehr gut resorbiert und der Plasmaspiegel ist während 24 Stunden deutlich höher als bei anderen Produkten. Deshalb empfehle ich gerne dieses Produkt.

    Hier die Studie dazu:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19284181

    Bei folgenden Krankheiten oder Situationen kann Coenzym Q10 eine vorbeugende oder heilende Wirkung haben:

    Chronische Müdigkeit/Abgeschlagenheit

    • Konzentrationsprobleme
    • Burnout
    • Depression
    • Demenz/Alzheimer
    • Parkinson
    • Häufige Infekte
    • Adipositas
    • ALS
    • Behandlung mit Statinen oder Betablockern
    • Alter über 50
    • Brustkrebs unter Tamoxifen-Behandlung
    • Diabetes
    • Chronische Entzündungen (z.B. Arthritis)
    • Fertilitätsstörungen
    • Fibromyalgie
    • Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen
    • Migräne
    • Multiple Sklerose
    • Niereninsuffizienz
    • Parodontose

    Weitere klinische Studien

    Über Q10 sind auf pubmed.org über 5000 Studien veröffentlicht.

    Die wichtigsten davon:

    Download Coenzym Q10 Artikel als PDF

  • Coenzyme Q10

    Coenzym Q10

    Dr. med. Heinz Lüscher

     

    Many people know Q10 from the advertising for anti-aging care products. But it would be a pity to limit Q10 to its effect on the skin. Q10 is basically needed by every cell in our body to ensure the energy supply. And it can do even more!

    What is Coenzyme Q10?

    Coenzyme Q10, also known as Q10, ubiquinone-10 or UQ, is a fat-soluble molecule that is similar in structure to vitamin K and vitamin E. Most people are familiar with Q10 from advertising for anti-aging products, so many think it is just a beauty product. However, it can do much more than ensure a firm skin, which is not bad at all.

    Cell-Energy

    Ubiquinone is a very important endogenous coenzyme that occurs in every cell of the body (ubiquitous = everywhere) and has a decisive influence on the formation of the universal body energy ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Q10 is one of the crucial nutrients for energy production in the tiny but powerful mitochondria. These are the power plants that work for us in each and every one of our body cells. In the mitochondria, the energy we consume via carbohydrates, fats or proteins is converted into ATP together with oxygen and the power of water. This process, in which many other enzymes and vital substances are involved, is also called the respiratory chain. Coenzyme Q10 plays an important role in the last step of the respiratory chain. Most Q10 is needed by organs with high energy consumption such as the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, pancreas and, in sports, the muscles. However, Q10 is basically urgently needed by every cell in our body to ensure the energy supply.

    But it can do even more!

    Main effects of Q10

    • Promotes the formation of the cell energy ATP
    • Acts antioxidative
    • Stabilizes the cell walls
    • Stabilizes the walls of the mitochondria
    • Strengthens the immune system
    • Protects the nerve cells (neuroprotective)
    • Protects the heart muscle cells (cardioprotective)

    Q10 deficiency

    Even a Q10 deficiency of 25% causes damage to the mitochondria, the tiny cell organelles that produce ATP, which can lead to a noticeable loss of energy. In the course of life, the body's own production decreases continuously. With an increasing deficiency of Q10, the risk of disease also increases. One example is dementia: every brain cell has hundreds to thousands of mitochondria that depend on Q10! The lower the Q10 level, the greater the risk of dementia. Q10 also inhibits inflammation and intercepts free radicals (antioxidant), which is also important in the prevention of dementia.

    Sources of coenzyme Q10

    Q10 is the only fat-soluble antioxidant that can be produced by our body itself. However, this amount is too small, so we have to supplement Q10 with our food. However, there is no food that contains a particularly high amount of Q10, so a balanced diet is crucial. Most Q10 is found in the flesh of organs (e.g. liver), oily fish (e.g. sardines), nuts (e.g. pistachios), pulses, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, vegetable oils, cabbage, onions, potatoes, spinach, Brussels sprouts and broccoli. However, the coenzyme can be destroyed by boiling. Gentle preparation is therefore important.

    When is supplementation with Q10 indicated?

    Supplementation can be recommended as a preventive measure from the age of 50 onwards, especially if problems with reduced energy are already noticeable or if medication is taken which reduces the Q10 level as a side effect. By the way, nobody makes a mistake to be well supplied with Q10. The positive effects e.g. on brain and heart function and life expectancy are proven beyond doubt. If you take Q10 as a dietary supplement, bioavailability is highest when you consume fats at the same time.

    Q10 Predators - drugs

    The cholesterol-lowering statins (CSE inhibitors) and beta-blockers considerably reduce the Q10 level as a side effect, in the case of statins it can be over 50%. Tricyclic antidepressants also lower Q10 levels. Anyone who has to take statins because of high cholesterol (note: a level below 7.0 mmol/l is normal and does not need to be treated, a cholesterol level below 5.0 mmol/l is even more dangerous than too high a level!

    Are there side effects of coenzyme Q10?

    Q10 has no side effects in therapeutic doses up to 2400 mg/day! At even higher doses, which makes no sense therapeutically, diarrhoea and nausea can occur.

    What is the difference between ubiquinone and ubiquinol?

    Ubiquinol is the reduced form of ubiquinone (a reduction is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another). Ubichonol and ubiquinone are 2 states of an identical substance.

    Dosage

    The dosage naturally depends on the disease and its severity, it is between 100 and 500 mg daily. The capsules are taken throughout the day before meals. A lower dose is sufficient for prophylactic replenishment of the Q10 level and is recommended for 3-6 months.

    Recommendations

    Liquid Q10 in soft gel capsules is best absorbed in the intestine. Preference should be given to natural products and not synthetically produced ones. The Q10 Vida, produced with a patented lipid-based process, is very well absorbed in the intestine and the plasma level is significantly higher than with other products during 24 hours. Therefore I gladly recommend this product.

    Here is the study:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19284181

    Coenzyme Q10 may cause a have a preventive or curative effect:

    Chronic fatigue/weariness

    • Problems of concentration
    • Burnout
    • Depression
    • Dementia/Alzheimer's
    • Parkinson
    • Common infections
    • Obesity
    • ALS
    • Treatment with statins or beta blockers
    • Age over 50
    • Breast cancer under tamoxifen treatment
    • Diabetes
    • Chronic inflammation (e.g. arthritis)
    • Fertility disorders
    • Fibromyalgia
    • Cardiovascular diseases
    • Migraine
    • multiple sclerosis
    • Renal insufficiency
    • Periodontosis

    Further clinical studies

    More than 5000 studies about Q10 are published on pubmed.org

    The most important ones:

    Download Coenzym Q10 Article as a PDF

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